Thursday, January 30, 2020
WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s History Essay Women have fought for many years to gain rights and the ability to be treated as manÃ¢â¬â¢s equal. Women have earned the right to vote and work outside the home in jobs that were classically menÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Women earned the right to serve their country during wartime. However, women must work harder to prove that they are worthy of being treated as an equal. Women have made great advances in civil rights since 1865, but they still have a long way to go to be treated as manÃ¢â¬â¢s equal. 1865-1900 During this time period, women in the United States gained a little independence with the westward expansion. They had to learn to operate all machinery and to run their homestead just as well as their husbands in case of an emergency when he was not around. There were many homesteads that were entirely run by women. These women were widows that moved either west after their husbands died or inherited the land after their husbands or ancestorÃ¢â¬â¢s death. During the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s women worked as domestic laborers such as maids, cooks, waitresses, and launderers. Some women obtained manufacturing jobs for pay that was significantly less than male workers (Bowles, 2012). Women were also beginning to become teachers. One in every four teachers were women. By 1900, three out of every four teachers were women (Bowles, 2012). After the slaves were freed in the South, the African American women took jobs as domestic workers. These were the same jobs that they had when they were slaves, only they were now able to earn a wage. In the homes that could not afford to hire outside domestic labor, the women of the home were forced to take on the responsibilities of running a home andÃ some had to obtain jobs outside the home. These women took jobs outside of the home preparing meals, sewing in factories, and domestic work in upper class homes. There were few women in industrial jobs, mostly sewing factories where they worked on an assembly line. Women began getting jobs in the clerical field, as the typewriter was better suited to their fingers. Other fields that were opening up to women workers were teaching, nursing, social work, and retail clerks. The women working outside the home were from the lower and middle class, single women, immigrants or African Americans. The upper class women did not get jobs outside the home, but many volunteered their time to causes that they felt strongly about. Elizabeth Cady Stanton started the fight for womanÃ¢â¬â¢s equal rights and their right to vote. Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments for Women in 1848. In 1868, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony began the National Woman Suffrage Association and wrote the Revolution a weekly publication that prompted equal rights for women. Susan B Anthony was arrested for illegally voting in the 1872 presidential election (The Bibliography Channel, 2011). The amendment to allow women to vote was introduced to congress in 1878; however, E. C. Stanton and S. B. Anthony died before the amendment was passed into law. 1900-1920 There were nine western states allowed women to vote by 1912. One of those states was Montana. In 1916, Jeannette Rankin decided to run for a seat in the House of Representatives. She was elected in 1917 and played an integral part to the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to vote. She fought for the creation of a WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Suffrage Committee and was appointed to it upon its creation (Office of History and Preservation, 2007). This committee wrote the Constitutional Amendment that would allow women the right to vote. On May 21, 1919, The House of Representatives passed the amendment and the senate passed it 2 weeks later. On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state to allow women the right to vote. When Tennessee ratified the amendment, this allowed Congress to pass the amendment since three-quarters of the states agreed. Women gained the right to vote with the 19th amendment that was certified on August 26, 1920 (National Archives, 2012). Although women gained the right to vote during this period, their employment opportunities were still limited. They were still accepted as teachers, nurses or social workers, retail sales, domestic labor, nuns and in the clerical field. As women filled the clerical positions, employers offered les pay to the female workers than the male workers had received (Bowles, 2011). Most women attended all female colleges or business schools during this time, as there were a few colleges that allowed co-education of men and women. There were also limits on what a woman could do after obtaining her degree, as it was still not acceptable for women to hold other jobs. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion during this time period changed. Many women began to stop wearing the corsets that were so popular during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. The length of their dresses became shorter. Instead of floor length, the hem rose to their mid-calf (Bowles, 2011). Women also began to wear makeup and cut their hair short. This represented a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom to do what he wished with her body. Women also started to become more athletic and outdoorsy, shedding the Victorian ideals of keeping the skin pale by staying out of the sun. Women also started to smoke as a sign of freedom and rebellion. Margaret Sanger was a nurse in New York when she wrote a newspaper column titled Ã¢â¬Å"What Every Girl Should KnowÃ¢â¬ (Biography.com, 2012). She started a publication called The Woman Rebel in 1914 in which she advocated a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to Ã¢â¬Å"birth controlÃ¢â¬ . In 1916, she opened the first clinic specializing in birth control, where she gave out information, condoms and fitted women for diaphragms to prevent pregnancy. She felt that it was a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to decide if and when to have children and that a woman would never be free until she was allowed that choice. In 1921, Margaret Sanger started the American Birth Control League. When World War I began in 1919, the clerical field was completely feminized (Bowles, 2012). During this war, 20,000 women worked in the armed forces, one quarter of these women were nurses stationed overseas (Bowles, 2012). They also took over the family farms and drove trucks during the war. They volunteered their time to promoting Liberty Bonds, teaching food conservation and sending supplies overseas. Their participation in the war efforts were then used as an example why they should be have an equal say in the political matters of theÃ country they helped to defend. 1920-1945 During the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s after earning the right to vote, women were able to express themselves in the political arena, so they also began expressing themselves in other area. Their fashion and lifestyles became Ã¢â¬Å"freerÃ¢â¬ , thus earning the name of Ã¢â¬Å"FlappersÃ¢â¬ (Bowles, 2011). These women wore their hair very short, wore a lot of makeup, and wore shirts or dresses that were at or above knee length. They were more apt to explore sex since birth control was available. They became very liberated during this time period. During the Great Depression, women suffered as much as the men. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s wages were decreased or jobs lost depending on the industry that they worked in. Many home became multi-family homes and the women became responsible for the care and feeding of more people. When the Great Depression started to subside, the United States government allowed women to obtain retirement and unemployment benefits when the Social Security Program began. This program was started by Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor. She was the first woman to hold a position in the Presidential Cabinet (Biography.com, 2012). There were also great advances in technology that produced more housework for women. With more advanced stoves, vacuum cleaners, washing machines and refrigerators the expected care of the home increased, thus creating more work for the women of the home.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Awaking on Friday morning, 20 June 1913, the South African Native found himself, not actually a slave, but a pariah in the land of his birthÃ¢â¬ (Gish 18). Desmond Tutu is one of the greatest rabble-rousers for peace that there ever was. He maintains huge political and religious influences even to this day. Most people in South Africa and many more countries hear his voice. His impact on fixing the apartheid system in South Africa was a major one. This apartheid system was very segregated towards whites and blacks in South Africa. Blacks were being forced to move to so-called Ã¢â¬Å"homelands.Ã¢â¬ The blacks had very little land to live with such many people. These people were being oppressed only because they had a different skin color then white people. Despite growing up in the poverty of South Arica, Desmond Tutu used his religious and political influences to help black South Africans that were being segregated by the government of South Africa. Born is Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa, Desmond Tutu was born under the name Desmond Mpilo Tutu. He attended multiple schools throughout his life, including Johannesburg Bantu High School. TutuÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a schoolteacher while his mother was a domestic worker. Nowadays, Tutu rarely discusses his ethnic roots. While Tutu was in his early years, the government passed the Natives Land Act. Less than eight percent of the country was dedicated as Ã¢â¬Å"reservesÃ¢â¬ for blacks. The black peoples only had this land to live off of. On top of this, Desmond caught polio as a young kid. Polio is a very deadly disease, so hid life hung by a thread. Luckily, he survived but with long-lasting effects. To this day, his hands still shake due to having polio as a kid. Ã¢â¬Å"Life was actually quite full. It was funÃ¢â¬ ¦al... ... and degrees in his lifetime, and the Nobel Peace Prize was one of them. This among many other medals shows his influence on the world. Desmond Tutu grew up in the poverty communities of South Africa. He overcame this to become on of the most influential man through both religion and politics. He can make his voice louder than many others, and he can voice his opinions throughout the world. He holds a major role in the religious community, having been archbishop in many places. Many strong and powerful government officials believe what Tutu has to say, and they voice his opinion through politics. Desmond Tutu is still alive today. He still strives to help the world become a better place. He was a major key in fixing the South African apartheid system. Maybe even without him, that system would still be present today. Desmond Tutu is a very influential and great man.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Dramatic religious paintings were being made Literature was being written in a way that it will be memorable. The King James version of the Bible had major impacts on the arts. It was finished in 1611 and was considered to be the most important change in English literature and printing (Ryken). It was set to transform the entire English language and keep the emotional influence. Ã¢â¬Å"The new translation of Scripture preserved the spiritual fervor of the Old Testament Hebrew and the narrative vigor of the New Testament GreekÃ¢â¬ (Fiero 62). The King James Version was a big part of the Baroque period because it was a piece of literature that had heightened emotional words and could actually be understood correctly by the reader. In Baroque artwork, viewers can visualize the emotional impact the painting has. Everything is in action and the painting is like shot in the middle of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on. In CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s The Crucifixion of Saint Peter, everything is painted right in the middle of the crucifixion. Saint Peter is not even up yet but in the middle of getting there. The painting is activated and has complex movements. Gravity has a very powerful pull in this picture as well. Viewers can see the emotion in Saint PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s face that he is scared but brave. Caravaggio made sure to tell a story in this painting with emotion since you see a poor, innocent, and homeless looking man being crucified. Everything from the guyÃ¢â¬â¢s dirty feet and bottom who hoisting up Saint Peter is basically sticking out to the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s face. The three men do not show there face as they crucify Saint Peter and it adds mystery as to who would do such an act. Everything from the nails in Saint PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s hands to the dirt on their feet is very real and descriptive. Light is also emphasized in this painting as well because of the black background. The Baroque period and its artwork gave out real emotion while the action is happening. All the tension in one painting is thrown into the viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ faces (Fiero). Music in the Baroque period surrounded itself with rhythm, melody, terraced dynamics, texture, and basses. Composers would express emotions and affection in their music and broke away from the Medieval times by using vocal and instrumental music. A famous composer in the Baroque period was Johann Sebastian Bach. He used to mainly do church music but then developed a more musical potential for the concerto form. The best composed song in his career was called The Art of Fugue. Ã¢â¬Å"A fugue is a polyphonic composition in which a single musical theme is restated in sequential phrasesÃ¢â¬ (Fiero). Baroque music brought in emotions and even listeners who donÃ¢â¬â¢t even understand the brilliance composition of Bach, can grow a love for his music just listening to it. The Baroque period brought in emotion to everything like literature, paintings, and music. It forever changed literature and the English language for people to understand it better and are able to be moved by the words in text instead of just reading it.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Globalisation: Definitions and Perspectives (Composed by Eric Beerkens, 2006) Globalization refers to all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society (p.9). Albrow 1990 Globality is supplanting modernity (p. 4) Albrow 1996 The world economy has become so highly interdependent as to make national independence an anachronism, especially in financial markets. The interdependence is driven by science, technology and economics - the forces of modernity.; and these forces, not governments, determined international relations. Thanks to this interdependence, war between modern nations is an impossibility. Angell 1911 The critical point is that both sides of the coin ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It has two distinctive features: it is global and it is structured, to a large extent, around a network of financial flows. Castells 1996 The rise of [global] informationalism in this end of millenium is intertwined with rising inequality and social exclusion throughout the world.(Ã¢â¬ ¦) Moreover, the process of social exclusion in the network society concerns both people and territories. So that, under certain conditions, entire countries, regions, cities and neighbourhoods become excluded, embracing in this exclusion most, or all, of their populations. This is different from the traditional process of spatial segragation. Castells 1998 The state as a Ã¢â¬Ëcompetition state plays a fundamental role in promoting globalization. However, this does not mean that, once the genie is out of the bottle, globalization is reversible. Cerny 1999 At the end of the twentieth century, the analysis of globalization of capital must start with finance. The financial sphere is the one in which the internationalization of markets is most advanced; the one in which the operations of capital have reached the highest degree of mobility. Chesnais 1997 Clarke Newman 1997 The happy ending of the globalisation narrative is one in which both nations and companies become faster and more agile in developing respomnses to new forms of competition. In relation to the public sector, this narrative of globalisation as a double purchase. Not onlyShow MoreRelatedEvaluation Of A Research On Management Education1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThank you for your submission to Journal of Management Education, Ã¢â¬Å"Criticality in Management Education: What It Is and What It Is NotÃ¢â¬ (JME-16-0084-ETR). I have completed the evaluation of your paper by soliciting reviews from three experts, who assessed the potential contribution to management education research. 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